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How does the belief in architecture understand the meaning of architecture?

来源:经济日报-中国经济网 14:32, December 25, 2019 Source: Economic Daily-China Economic Net

If you have no faith in architecture, you won't know what it is.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Paris Academy of Fine Arts, which led architectural education, developed a very rigorous teaching method to tell students how to design buildings. After receiving the design task, the students were isolated in a small room without the help of books and outside guidance. They need to complete a draft or preliminary design sketch within 12 hours. The main purpose of this exercise is to allow students to determine the overall plan of the architectural design from the beginning. In the next two months, students will design the plan in more depth. A student's guidebook reads: "Giving an overall composition of an architectural design to a problem is an attitude towards the results of the problem. I hope that in this way, students can follow the plan to make the building The best solution. "Although we no longer use the word" sketch "," parti "is still used today because it embodies a timeless truth: great buildings often start from a single Yes, sometimes very simple ideas develop.

The moment you step into the Roman Pantheon, the whole building has a panoramic view: a lattice dome supported by a large barrel, and the sun shines through the dome window directly above. No design is simpler than this, but no one underestimates the Pantheon. The Pantheon was built by the Roman emperor Hadrian in the 1st century AD and is one of the most influential buildings in Western architecture. The Pantheon inspired Donato Bramante to design St. Peter's Basilica, Christopher Wren to design St. Paul's Cathedral, and Thomas Justic Walter to design the United States Capitol.

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York designed by Frank Lloyd Wright is a typical example of a single concept that runs through the entire building. Considering the expensive land prices in Manhattan, Wright thinks the museum must be vertical. He designed four schemes, one of which was an octagonal body fixed in a towering space surrounded by a spiral ramp and a skylight at the top. Visitors can take the elevator to the top of the ramp and admire the artworks displayed along the way as they walk down. The idea was so simple, but no matter how many times I went, I was shocked, and every time I was as excited as seeing it for the first time. Wright blended architectural details into the background, for example, the railing of the spiral ramp is a short concrete wall with a round top, and the floor of the ramp is simply painted concrete. He explained: "The entire building has no sudden changes in vision. It is like the uninterrupted waves on the seashore, allowing your eyes to slowly follow it."

Concept house

Mies van der Rohe's house in Plano, Illinois, for Dr. Edith Vansworth's house, is similar to Philip Johnson's own house in New Canaan, Connecticut. Both homes raise an extraordinary question: What if all the walls of the home were made of glass? They were both weekend holiday homes built in the 1940s and were single-story rectangular boxes. The Vansworth house is 23.5 meters long and 8.5 meters wide. Johnson is 17 meters long and 9.5 meters wide. Both buildings are I-steel structures. Considering that the transparent house should be as open as possible, there are no pillars in the interior of the two houses, and there is only a single unit that separates the internal space, including closets, kitchen cabinets, and bathrooms. There is no such thing as a room in the traditional sense.

The flowing water villa is also a weekend holiday residence, but it is more strict in function than the glass house of Smith and Johnson, because it is a family of three and frequent guests. Wright's novel idea is to build the entire building on a huge rock above the ground, and use a cantilever structure to suspend the building above the waterfall. It is said that he accidentally designed a flowing water villa one morning, but I think he must have been brewing for a long time, because whether it is dealing with the intersecting terrain in the site or the complex space where the building itself overlaps, it is not a piece Easy thing. The choice of materials is also limited: creamy reinforced concrete with smooth edges, rough stone walls and floors, and steel window frames painted in Cherokee red. It is said that this is Wright's favorite color. In this way, the "old magician" performed his magic with such a simple set of colors. "Old Magician" is a nickname given to him by Wright's biographer Brendan Gill.

The most famous conceptual house in history is actually the Renaissance round hall villa, which is located on the outskirts of Vicenza, Italy. Because the Round Hall Villa has a circular dome in the center, it is also called "Mini Pantheon". Most Renaissance architects preferred axisymmetric graphic design. That is, if you imagine a line through the center of the building, all rooms on the right are mirror images of the left. Andrea Palladio went one step further on the basis of this axisymmetric plane, creating two perpendicularly intersecting axes, thereby designing four square houses with exactly the same elevation. At the same time, Palladio was equipped with a column porch for each facade. Because the residence is on the top of a mountain, each porch has a different view. Such a strictly symmetrical plane is not as impractical as it sounds. Eight rooms have direct outdoor access. The centrally-domed reception room can be reached via any of the four porches. At the same time, no matter what happens in the reception room, it will not affect the normal use of other rooms.

Economic Daily-China Economic Net from "How to Understand Architecture" Zhejiang Education Press

(Responsible editor: Shi Lan)

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